Types of Reading အမ်ိဳးမ်ိဳးရွိသည့္ အနက္ ဤသင္ခန္းစာတြင္ "Intensive Reading" ကို ေလ့လာၾကရေအာင္။ 

Clare West ၏ Reading Techniques စာအုပ္၏ စာမ်က္ႏွာ ၂၄ တြင္ "Intensive reading involves a very careful thorough reading of a text." ဟု ဖြင့္ဆိုပါသည္။ ထို႕ေၾကာင့္ intensive reading ျပဳလုပ္ရာတြင္ လိုက္နာရန္ နည္းလမ္းမ်ားမွာ -

  • Underline or highlight words you do not know.
  • Look them up or work out their meaning from the context. 

underline / highlight လုပ္ထားေသာ words မ်ား၏ meaning ကို dictionary မွာ ရွာၾကည့္၍ျဖစ္ေစ၊ context စာပုဒ္ပါ အေၾကာင္းအရာမ်ားကို ဆက္စပ္စဥ္းစား၍ျဖစ္ေစ စကားလုံး၏ အဓိပၸါယ္ကို ေဖာ္ထုတ္ရန္ ညႊန္ျပထားပါသည္။

(ဤနည္းလမ္းႏွစ္မ်ိဳးအနက္ dictionary မွ အဓိပၸါယ္ရွာေဖြျခင္းျဖစ္သည့္ ပထမနည္းလမ္းမွာ reading speed စာဖတ္ႏွုန္း နိမ့္က်ေႏွးေကြးေစပါသျဖင့္ context မွ အဓိပၸါယ္ရွာေဖြသည့္ ဒုတိယနည္းမွာ reading skill ကို ပိုမို၍ တိုးတက္ေစပါသည္။)

  • Try to paraphrase difficult words or group of words (ခက္ခဲေသာ စကားလုံးမ်ား၊ စကားစုမ်ားကို ၾကိဳးစား၍ စကားေျပျပန္ၾကည့္ရန္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။)
  • When you come to the end, read the text again several times if necessary, until you feel you understand all of it.

Clare West ညႊန္ၾကားထားသည့္ နည္းမ်ားအတိုင္း "A Greener Brazil" ကို ဖတ္၍ ေပးထားေသာ ေမးခြန္း ၆ ခုကို ေျဖဆိုၾကည့္ျခင္းျဖင့္ intensive reading ကို ေလ့က်င့္ၾကရေအာင္။


Read this text carefully and answer the questions which follow.

A Greener Brazil

(Paragraph 1)

Although Brazil has its share of environmental and social problems, it has its successes too. One of these is the town of Curitiba, where the authorities have shown evidence of a strong vision and commitment to good environment practice. In the shanty towns there are no flies or litter, because there is a voluntary recycling exchange system. A constant procession of women and children bring rubbish they have collected in bags or in wheel barrows; for a kilo of litter they are given a kilo of potatoes and one of bananas. So the street stay clean and people don’t go hungry.

(Paragraph 2)

Public transport has also been transformed. The buses are of the latest design with platforms that open out at the same time as the doors, enabling a large number of passengers to board quickly. People buy their tickets beforehand to save time, and buses travel in their own dedicated bus lanes. These recent initiatives have reduced traffic delays in the rush hours and have encouraged far more Curitiba residents on to public transport. Many motorists now leave their cars at home and take the bus to work.

(Paragraph 3)

Jaime Lerner, former mayor of Curitiba is proud of what he and his colleagues have achieved. He says, “I’m convinced that every city in the world, whatever scale, whatever the financial resources, can bring about a significant change in less than two years. What is needed is the will to change, and the involvement of all citizens. That’s what we had in Curitiba.

1. What words in the first paragraph mean the following?
a. area of poor housing
b. rubbish or waste
c. unpaid, not compulsory

No. 1 ၏ ေမးခြန္း၌ပင္ "the first paragraph" ဟူ၍ reference ေပးထားပါသျဖင့္ a, b, c အေျဖသံုးခုလုံးကို first paragraph ၌ပင္ ရွာရမည္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ သို႕ျဖစ္ပါ၍ အဓိပၸါယ္တူညီသည့္ စာလုံးမ်ားကို လိုက္လံဖတ္႐ႈၾကည့္ပါက

a. "area of poor housing" ကို "shanty towns" ဟူ၍၎၊
b. "rubbish or waste" ကို "litter" ဟု၎၊
c. "unpaid, not compulsory" "လုပ္ခမရေသာ" ၊ "မလုပ္မေနရ မဟုတ္ေသာ" စကားမ်ားႏွင့္ အဓိပၸါယ္တူညီေနေသာ စကားလုံးမွာ "voluntary" ဟူ၍ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။

No. 1, word level ကို ေက်ာ္လြန္၍ No. 2 မွ စျပီး "Wh" question words မ်ားျဖင့္စ၍ ေမးထားေသာ ေမးခြန္းမ်ားျဖစ္ပါ၍ "read the text again" ဟု ညႊန္ျပထားသည့္အတိုင္း text ကို ျပန္ဖတ္၍ main words/ key words မ်ားကို အေျခခံကာ နီးစပ္ရာ စကားလုံးမ်ားကို ေထာက္လွမ္း၍ စာပုဒ္ပါ စကားလုံးမ်ား၊ ဝါက်မ်ားကို မွတ္သားျပီး မိမိ own words ျဖင့္ သင့္ေလ်ာ္သလို ျပန္လည္ေျဖဆိုရပါသည္။

Question No. 2
Who keeps parts of Curitiba clean and tidy? Why?

Question word "Who" ကို focus လုပ္၍ ရွာေဖြပါက paragraph ၌ပင္ "women and children" ကို ေတြ႕ရမည္ျဖစ္ျပီး "Why" ကို အေၾကာင္းျပေျဖဆိုရမည္ျဖစ္ပါ၍ "women and children" ကို ဆက္လက္ ဖတ္႐ႈပါက အေျဖထြက္ေပၚလာမည္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ မိမိ own words ျဖင့္ ေျဖဆိုပါက "Women and children keep parts of Curitiba clean because they exchange litter for food." ဟူ၍ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။

Question No. 3
What is the main advantage of the new type of bus?

"The new type of bus" ၏ advantage ကို ရွာရာ၌ "bus" ကို focus လုပ္၍ ရွာလွ်င္ Paragraph 2 "enabling a large number of passengers to board quickly." ကို ေတြ႕ရမည္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ Paraphase လုပ္၍ စကားေျပျပန္ေရးသားပါက "The main advantage of the new type of bus is that more people can get on quickly." ဟူ၍ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။

Question No. 4
Which other improvements to bus travel have reduced traffic delays in Curitiba?

"traffic delay" ေလ်ာ့ပါးေစရန္ ေဆာင္ရြက္သည့္ bus travel ႏွင့္ သက္ဆိုင္ေသာ improvement မ်ားကို ရွာရန္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ bus ႏွင့္ပင္ ပတ္သက္ေနပါ၍ Paragraph 2 ကို တဖန္ျပန္ ဖတ္႐ႈသည့္အခါ "people buying their tickets beforehand to save time" ႏွင့္ "buses travel in own dedicated bus lanes" ဟူသည့္ facts မ်ားကို ေတြ႕ရွိရပါသည္။ ထိုႏွစ္ခ်က္ကို အေျခခံ၍ ေျဖဆိုပါက
"People buying their tickets beforehand to save time and buses travelling in their own dedicated bus lanes have reduced traffic delay in Curitiba." ဟူ၍ ေျဖဆိုႏိုင္ပါသည္။

Question No. 5
According to Jaime Lerner, which two things are essential when trying to solve the problems of city life?

Jaime Lerner ၏ စကားကို quote ကို ကိုးကားထားပါသျဖင့္ Jaime Lerner ပါဝင္ေသာ paragraph မွာ Paragraph 3 ၌ အေျဖပါဝင္ဖြယ္ရာရွိပါသည္။ "Which two things are essential?" ဟု ေမးထားပါသျဖင့္ လိုအပ္ခ်က္ႏွစ္ရပ္ကို ရွာပါက "the will to change and the involvement of all citizens" ဟူသည့္ အခ်က္မ်ားကို ေတြ႕ရမည္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ Complete sentence ျဖင့္ ျပန္ေျဖဆိုပါက "According to Jaime Lerner, the will to change and the involvement of the citizens are essential when trying to solve the problem of city life." ဟူ၍ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။

Question No. 6
How has life improved in recent years for Curitiba residents?

ဤ question 6 သည္ "last but not the least" ဆိုသကဲ့သို႕ "Greener Brazil" တစ္ပုဒ္လုံးကို summarize ျခဳံငံုေျဖဆိုရန္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ အေၾကာင္းအက်ိဳးဆက္စပ္ေျဖဆိုနည္းကို သုံးရန္ပင္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။
"Streets are now much cleaner because of the voluntary system. Moreover, public transport is far better and initiatives introduced by the authorities have helped to reduce traffic jam."

"A Greener Brazil" ကို ဖတ္႐ႈရျခင္းျဖင့္ Reading skills ကို တိုးျမႇင့္ေပး႐ံုသာမက စံနစ္ေကာင္းမ်ားကို authority concerns မ်ားက Curitiba residents မ်ားအား ခ်မွတ္ ျပဳစုပ်ိဳးေထာင္ေပးသည္ႏွင့္အညီ citizens မ်ားကလည္း voluntary system တြင္ ပါဝင္လာျခင္းျဖင့္ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္သူမ်ားႏွင့္ အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ခံလူတန္းစားမ်ား "ကြၽန္းကိုင္းမွီ၊ ကိုင္းကြၽန္းမွီ" အေပးအယူ မွ်တျခင္းျဖင့္ Curitiba တိုးတက္လာပံု mayor ၏ ယံုၾကည္ခ်က္ျဖစ္သည့္ "everything in the world whatever the scale, whatever the financial resources, can bring about a significant change in less than two years." ဟု ဖတ္႐ႈလိုက္ရျခင္းျဖင့္ ေစတနာမွန္ေသာ ကံတရားမ်ားကို အားက် မုဒိတာပြါးမိပါသည္။

Daw Tin Nwai Win

Retired Lecturer (English Department, Yangon University) Diploma in Teaching of English Overseas (Leeds University), M.A (T.E.F.L) Y.I.O.E


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Brillian. I'm very pleased to know.

Thanks for the post Teacher.

thanks.. :)
Thank you

Thank you for that helpful post. Please upload more about reading !

Thanks,it is useful for me..


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