• verb တစ္လုံးနဲ႔ေဖာ္ျပေလ့ရွိတဲ့ idea တစ္ခုကုိ noun or noun phrase
တစ္ခုနဲ႔ ေျပာင္းလဲ ေရးသားေျပာဆုိတာကုိ nomalisation လုိ႔ေခၚတယ္။
The number of people living close to the lake has increased
There has been an increase in the number of people living close to the lake.
• verb အျပင္အျခား parts of speech ေတြကုိလည္း nomalised form
The situation was so dangerous that it was necessary to bring in the army to
The danger of the situation made it necessary to bring in the army to oversee
• complex structure တစ္ခုကုိလည္း nominalised form အျဖစ္ေျပာင္းႏူိင္တယ္။
Evacuees will remain in temporary accomodation for as long as
the emergency continues.
Evacuees will remain in temporary accommodation for the duration of the
• norminalised formed ကုိေျပာင္းတဲ့အခါ adverb ဟာ adjective
Scientists noticed that the temperature of the lake had risen suddenly.
Scientists noticed a sudden rise in the temperature of the lake.
• norminalised form အျဖစ္ေျပာင္းထားတဲ့ noun phrase ေတြမွာ အမ်ားအားျဖင့္ preposition နဲ႔ ဆက္ထားတဲ့ noun ႏွစ္လုံးပါဝင္ေလ့ရွိတယ္။
The industrial development of the area has increased the number of people
living near the lake.
There was a dramatic rise in the level of randon gas in the soil.
The identification of the HIV virus in the mid-1980s led to efforts to produce
Detectives were last night questioning a man about the disappearance of
a large number of valuable books from the National library over recent months.
• ေအာက္ပါအေျခေနမ်ားမွာ nomalisation ကုိသုံးေလ့ရွိတယ္။
*ျပဳလုပ္သူ agent ကုိ မေဖာ္ျပလုိတဲ့အခါ-
Two days ago the authorities began to evacuate 30,000 people.
Two days ago the evacuation of around 30,000 people began.
*clause ႏွစ္ခုကုိ တစ္ခုတည္းအျဖစ္ က်စ္လစ္တိက်စြာ ေျပာဆုိေရးသားလုိတဲ့အခါ-
Two power stations were built just a few kilometres away. This was strongly
The building of two power stations just a few kilometres away was strongly
criticised by environmentalists.
• Norminalisation ပုံစံကုိ formal style, academic writing နဲ႔ newspaper မ်ားမွာအသုံးမ်ားတယ္။ ဒီပုံစံကုိ သုံးျခင္းအားျဖင့္ sentence ရဲ႕ focus ကုိလုိအပ္တဲ့ ေနရာမွာထားႏူိင္ေစတယ္။ ေအာက္က ဥပမာ sentence ႏွစ္ေၾကာင္းကုိ ေလ့လာၾကည့္ပါ။
The provision of temporary shelter in a safe location for those diplaced
is the army’s top priority.
(ဒီ sentence ရဲ႕ focus ဟာ ‘‘the army’s top priority” ျဖစ္တယ္...English sentence မ်ားမွာ အေရးႀကီးတဲ့ new information ကုိ
Temporary shelter in a safe location for those displaced is being provided,
and this is the army’s top priority.
(ဒီ sentence မွာ focus လုပ္ထားတဲ့ အေၾကာင္းအရာမပါဘူး)
• do, give, have, make, take + noun ပုံစံကုိေတာ့ infomal style
မွာအသုံးမ်ားတယ္။ သူ႔အစား လုံးခ်င္း verb တစ္လုံးကုိ လဲလွယ္ အသုံးျပဳတာက more formal ျဖစ္တယ္။
The authorities took immediate action.
The authorities acted immediately.
The decision was made to evacuate an area of 5km around the entire lake.
It was decided to evacuate an area of 5km around the entire lake.
When my mother was ill, I had to cook for the family.
I had to do all the cooking last week because my Mum was away.
• အသုံးမ်ားတဲ့ informal “verb + noun” ပုံစံေတြကေတာ့-
do + the cooking, the gardening, the ironing, the shopping, the washing up
give + a call, an explanation, a hug, a kiss, a look, a ring, a shout, a sigh
a warning, a welcome
have + a chat, a drink, a fall, a feeling, a guess, influence, a look, respect,
a rest, a shower, a sleep, a talk
take + action, aim, a (deep) breath, a decision, a (quick) glance, a look,
a shelter, a shower, a walk
make + an arrangement, an assumption, a comment, contact, a decision
a discovery, progress, a recommendation, a start, use (of)
သိပ္ၾကိုက္တယ္။မ်ားမ်ားတင္ေပးပါ။Ko Okkaေရ ၃ ရက္ေန႕ရဟန္းခံေတာ႕မွာမို႕ႏွဳတ္ဆက္ခဲ႕ပါတယ္။