Primary  English :        { 19 }   Grammar   &  Poem  for   Kids

        ကေလးမ်ားအတြက္   ကဗ်ာ နွင့္ သဒၵါ စာစဥ္မ်ား

"Direct  &   Indirect  Speech"

1.      Direct  Speech     =       တိုက္ရိုက္ေၿပာစကား

2.      Indirect  Speech  =       တစ္ဆင့္ခံ ၿပန္ေၿပာစကား

 

        Reported   Speech သို႔မဟုတ္ Indirect  Speech သည္ တၿခားတစ္ေယာက္ ၏ေၿပာဆုိခ်က္မ်ားကို အၿခားသူတစ္ဦးသုိ႔  မိမိ ႀကားသိေသာအေနၿဖင့္ ၿပန္လည္ေရးသားေဖာ္ၿပၿခင္း ၿဖစ္ပါသည္၊

           Direct  Speech မွ Indirect  Speech သို႔ေၿပာင္းရာတြင္ ပံုစံ ေလးမ်ိဳးရွိပါသည္၊

1.       Statement                                                    (ေဖာ္ၿပခ်က္ ၀ါက် )  

2.       Question                                                       (ေမးခြန္း ၀ါက်)

3.       Imperative (or) Command and Request            (အမိန္႔ေပး - ခိုင္းေစ -ေတာင္းပန္ ၀ါက်)

4.       Exclamation                                                  (အာေမဋိတ္  ၀ါက်)

 

        Pronouns နာမ္စားမ်ားနွင့္  ႀကိယာပံုစံမ်ားကို ေၿပာင္းလဲေပးရပါမည္၊              

 

1.     Statement   (ေဖာ္ၿပခ်က္ ၀ါက်)

( Obj မပါေသာပံုစံ ) Eg/1.    Mg Mg said , "The apples are good."

                   2.       Thura said , "  I   feel very tired ."

(  Obj ပါေသာ ပံုစံ )  Eg/1.   Ko Ko said to Mu Mu , "  I want to speak to you."

                   2.       Ko Ko said to Mu Mu , " I  will come to your house                                   tomorrow ."

 

ဥပေဒ 1.       obj မပါလွ်င္ said ကို  said that ေၿပာင္းေပးပါ၊

                   ( say / says ဆိုလွ်င္  say /says  that ဘဲ ေရးပါ ၊)

          2.       obj ပါလွ်င္  said to ကုိ  told  + obj  +  that ေၿပာင္းေပးပါ ၊

          3.       V1 ကုိ   V2 ေၿပာင္း ( Verb ႀကိယာမ်ားကို  အတိတ္ ၿဖစ္ေအာင္  ေၿပာင္းေပးပါ ၊)

          4.       V2 ကို had V3 ေၿပာင္းေပးပါ၊

          5.       နာမ္စားေၿပာင္းပါ        (  I ေရွ႕   You ေနာက္ သေဘာေပါက္ပါ )

          I သည္ ေရွ႕က လူနွင့္ဆိုင္ၿပီး ၊ You သည္ ေနာက္ကလူနွင့္ ဆိုင္သည္ ဟုမွတ္ပါ ၊)

          6.       အမ်ားနာမ္ဆိုလွ်င္   they  =  them  =  their   ေၿပာင္းေပးပါ ၊

          7.       အခ်ိန္ၿပ ပုဒ္ မ်ားကို ေၿပာင္းေပးပါ ၊

       

        First person          =      I  / We               =      ေၿပာသူ

        Second person     =      You                   =       နားေထာင္သူ

        Third person       =      He /She / It / They       =       အေၿပာခံ ရသူ

 

        Person  နွင့္ပတ္သက္ၿပီး ၊က်က္ထားရန္

  Pronoun  မ်ားကို မွန္ကန္စြာ ေရးတတ္ရမည္ ၊

Sub   Obj   Adjective    Possessive  Reflexive Pronoun

I       me            my            mine          myself 

We    us             our            ours          ourselves

You    you          your          yours         yourself / yourselves

He     him          his            his             himself

She   her            her          hers          herself

It        it                 its             its             itself

They them         their          theirs        themselves

           

             က်ား                       မ

          I     -  he                I      - she

          me  -  him              me   -   her

          my  -  his               my   - her

 

          You   -  he               You  - she

          You   - him              You  - her

          Your  -his               Your - her

 

        Time and   Place           ဒါေတြကို အလြတ္ရေအာင္ က်က္မွတ္ထားပါ ၊

          this                        -        that

          these                     -        those

          here                       -        there

          now                       -        then

          thus                       -        so

          ago                        -        before

          today                     -        that day

          tonight                  -        that night

          Yesterday               -        the day before  / the previous day

          tomorrow               -        the next day  /  the day after /  the following day

          last                        -        the previous

          last night                -        the night before  /  the previous night

          last week                -        the  previous week

          last month              -        the previous month

          last year                 -        the previous year

          the day before yesterday   -two days before

          next                       -        the following

          next week              -        the following week

          next month            -        the following month

          next year                -        the following year

          now a days             -        in those days

 

          ေနာက္တစ္ခု ထပ္မွတ္ပါဦး ၊

          V1( present tense ) ကို   V2 ( past tense ) ေၿပာင္းေပးပါ ၊

          V2 ကို   had V3  ေၿပာင္းေပးပါ ၊

1.       can              =       could

2.       shall             =       should

3.       will              =       would

4.       would           =       would

5.       may             =       might

6.       might           =       might

7.       must            =       had to

8.       mustn't         =       mustn't

9.       was / were    =       had been   ဆိုတာကို ထပ္မွတ္ပါဦး၊

 

          ဒီ ေနရာမွာ ၿခြင္းခ်က္ကေတာ့  ေၿပာစကား ကအမွန္တရားေတြဆိုရင္  Tense  မေၿပာင္းရပါဘူး၊

          ေအာက္ပါ  ႀကိယာ ေၿပာင္း ပံုစံ ဇယားကို  ေလ့လာပါ ၊

          Direct  Speech                            Reported Speech

          V1                                             V2

          Simple Present                           Simple past

          ပစၥဳပၸန္ ရိုးရိုး                                 အတိတ္ ရိုးရိုး

 

          am / is / are  + V -ing                 was /were   + V-ing

          Present Continuous                     Past Continuous

          ပစၥဳပၸန္ ဆက္လက္                         အတိတ္ဆက္လက္

 

          have  /has +V3                           Had +V3

          Present Perfect                           Past Perfect

          ပစၥဳပၸန္ ၿပီးစီး                                 အတိတ္ၿပီးစီး

 

          V2                                             Had V3

          Simple Past                                Past Perfect

          အတိတ္ရိုးရိုး                                အတိတ္ၿပီးစီး

 

          was / were + V-ing                     had been +V-ing

          Past  Continuous                        Past Perfect Continuous

          အတိတ္ဆက္လက္                        အတိတ္ၿပီးစီး ဆက္လက္

 

          had V3                                      had V3

          Past Perfect                                Past Perfect

          အတိတ္ ၿပီးစီး                               အတိတ္ၿပီးစီး

 

          shall  /will  + V1                         should /would + V1

          Future                                       Conditional

          အနာဂတ္                                    အတိတ္အနာဂတ္

 

          should / would + V1                    should /would + have + V3

          Conditional                                Conditional Perfect

          အတိတ္အနာဂတ္                          အတိတ္ အနာဂတ္ၿပီးစီး

 

    ေရွ႕ႀကိယာက  Present Tense နွင့္ Future Tense နွင့္လာလွ်င္ ၊ ေနာက္မွ ႀကိယာမ်ားကို  Past Tense သို႔မေၿပာင္းရပါ၊

 

Reported  Speech Statement (သာမန္ေၿပာဆိုခ်က္ )  ကဗ်ာ

Subject နဲ႕စ ပံုစံ ၿပ ၊                                         Statement  မွတ္လိုက္ႀက ၊

ပံုစံ တက် မွတ္ထားပါ                                        Obj ပါ -မပါ ၊

Obj  မပါရင္  said ေနာက္ဘက္ ၊                          that  ေလး ထပ္ လို႔ဆက္၊

Said that  ,  say that  , says  that  ပါ                Obj မပါ တဲ့အခါ ၊

Obj ပါရင္  told  ေၿပာင္းေပး                                told that  ပံုစံေရး၊

နာမ္စားေလးေတာ့  ေၿပာင္းလို႔ေကာက္ ၊                  I ေရွ႕ You ေနာက္ သေဘာေပါက္၊

သေဘာေပါက္ဖို႔  မွတ္ထားဗ်ိဳ ၊                             I , me , my , mine  သိဖို႔လို ၊

person ကိုေလ သတိထား ၊                                 က်ား လား -မ လား ခြဲခြဲၿခား ၊

အမ်ားသေဘာမွတ္လုိက္ေလ ၊                             they , them , their  ေတြ၊

time ေတြ  place ေတြ ေၿပာင္းမယ္ ဗ်ား၊                 အလြတ္က်က္လို႔ထား၊

ေၿပာစကားက အမွန္တရားဆို၊                              present  သံုးပါဗ်ိဳ ၊

ဒီလုိ ဒီလို ဥပမာ ၿပ ၊                                          ကမၻာႀကီးက လံုးသဗ် ၊           The earth is round .

လူေတြကေတာ့ ေသမ်ိဳးပါ ၊ Man is mortal.             အေရွ႔ဖက္ကေနထြက္တာ၊      The sun rises in the east .

person  , time ရယ္ ေနရာ  place   ၊                    အေရးႀကီးပါေပ့ ၊

မေမ့ေအာင္သာက်က္လုိ႔ထား၊                              ကၽြမ္းက်င္လာမယ္ ဗ်ား။

 

Reported  Speech         Statement (သာမန္ေၿပာဆိုခ်က္ )

 Eg /1.          Thura said  ,  "  I  feel  very tired . "                                                      

Thura   said that  he felt  vey tired .

 

Eg/2.  "The basket is not heavy,"said Mu Mu.

          Mu Mu said that the basket was not heavy.

 

Eg/3.  "The school  is not very far," said Su Sandar.

          Su Sandar said that the school was not very far.

 

Eg/4.  Ma Gyi said, "My necklace is made of gold."

          Ma Gyi said that her necklace was made of gold.

 

Eg/5.  Boni said to Thiha  ,  "  I   will come to your house tomorrow  ."

          Boni told Thiha  that he would come to his house  the next day .   

          I ေရွ႔   You  ေနာက္ သေဘာေပါက္ပါ ၊

 

Eg /6. Waiyan  said  , "    Thura  , I   have a good collection  of stamps ."

          Waiyan told Thura that he had a good collection of stamps .

 

Eg/7.  Ko Ko said to Mu Mu ,"  I   want to speak to   you ."

          Ko Ko told Mu Mu that he wanted to speak to her.

 

Eg/8.  I said to Aye Aye , " I   want to see you   next Sunday. "

          I told Aye Aye that I wanted to see her the following  Sunday.

 

Eg/9.  "You   are to help me with my work   today  , Ko Ko ,"said Thida .

          Thida told Ko Ko that he was to help her with her work that day.

 

Eg/10.          "  I    am going to school ,"said  Su Su to Yu Yu.

          Su Su told Yu Yu that she was going to school .

 

Eg/11.          "  I    like  your  handwriting ," Zaw Zaw said to Ko Oo.

          Zaw Zaw told Ko Oo that he liked his handwriting.

 

Eg/12.          Mg Mg says ," I    am   happy."   

          ( Present Tense ဆိုလွ်င္ သတိထားပါ  Past Tense မေၿပာင္းရပါ ၊ )

          Mg Mg says that he is happy .

 

Eg/13.          U Kyaw Nyein says , " I'm a headmaster ."

          U Kyaw Nyein says that he is a headmaster.

 

Eg/14.          The teacher said, " The earth goes round the sun."

          The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.                               

အၿမဲတမ္းမွန္ကန္တဲ့ ၿဖစ္ရပ္ေတြကို  Present Tense ဘဲသံုးပါတယ္ ၊PastTense  မသံုးပါ၊

 

 

Eg / 15.        Ma Ma Gyi said , " Fire is hot ." မီးက ပူတယ္ ၊ ဒါဟာအမွန္တရားပါ၊

          Ma Ma Gyi said  that  fire is hot .

 

Eg /16.         The tuition teacher said , " The earth is round ."

          The tuition teacher said that the earth is round.

 

Eg/ 17.         The man said , " The sun sets in the west ."

          The man said that  the sun sets in the west .

 

Eg / 18.        The old man said , " Man is mortal ."

          The old man said that man is mortal .

 

Eg/19.          Nyimalay says , " I  am glad to be here this evening."

          Nyimalay says that she is glad to be there that evening .

 

                                                   ကေလးမ်ားအတြက္ ေမတၱာမ်ားစြာ ၿဖင့္

                                                        Diamond ( mamami289@gmail.com )

 

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