Summary of Basic Verb Patterns in English အေျခခံ ႀကိယာပုံစံမ်ား (improving your writing skill)

Intransitive Verbs
verb အမ်ဳိးအစားေတြထဲမွာ အ႐ုိးစင္းဆုံးကေတာ့ intransitive verb ျဖစ္တယ္။   ဒီ verb မ်ဳိးေတြဟာ တစ္လုံးတည္းနဲ႔ sentence တစ္ေၾကာင္းရဲ႕  အဓိပၸါယ္ကုိ ျပည့္စုံေအာင္ေဖာ္ျပႏူိင္တယ္။   [V]
                           He sighed.                         A large dog appeared.

အခ်ဳိ႕ intransitive verb ေတြကေတာ့ အဓိပၸါယ္ျပည့္စုံဖုိ႔အတြက္ ေနာက္မွာ 

prepositional phrase or adverb တစ္ခု အၿမဲပူးတြဲပါရွိဖို႔လုိတယ္။ ဒီလုိ verb ေတြဟာ

အမ်ားအားျဖင့္ တစ္ေနရာမွတစ္ေနရာသုိ႔ သြားလာလႈပ္ရွားမႈကုိေဖာ္ျပတဲ့ verb မ်ားျဖစ္တယ္

 [V + adv./prep.]

         A runaway car came hurtling towards us.
         A group of swans floated by.
         A wasp had flown in through the window.

Transitive Verbs

  Transitive verb ေတြကေတာ့ sentence အဓိပၸါယ္ျပည့္စုံဖုိ႔အတြက္ ေနာက္မွာ

  object   တစ္ခု အတူပူူးတြဲပါရွိဖုိ႔လုိအပ္တဲ့ verb ေတြျဖစ္တယ္။ object ဟာ 

  noun/pronoun တစ္လုံး သုိ႔မဟုတ္ noun phrase/clause တစ္ခု ျဖစ္ႏူိင္တယ္။  [VN]

              She cut her hand.                            

              Jill's behaviour annoyed me.

ဒီလုိ transitive verb အမ်ားစုကုိ passive sentence အျဖစ္ေျပာင္းလဲေရးသားႏူိင္တယ္။

                 I was annoyed by Jill’s behaviour.

အခ်ဳိ႕ transitive verb ေတြကုိေတာ့ passive မသုံးႏူိင္ဘူး။  

                None of them could afford$ 100 for a ticket. (no passive)

အခ်ဳိ႕ transitive verb ေတြကေတာ့ object ရဲ႕ေနာက္မွာ prepositional phrase

or  adverb တစ္လုံး အၿမဲအတူပူးတြဲပါရွိဖုိ႔လုိအပ္တယ္။  [VN + adv./prep.]

                   He wedged the phone under his chin.
                   She was bundled off to boarding school.
                  The river winds its way between two meadows.

အခ်ဳိ႕ transitive verb ေတြကေတာ့ ေနာက္မွာ object ႏွစ္ခု သုံးႏူိင္တယ္။

သုိ႔မဟုတ္  သာမာန္ transitive verb တစ္လုံးအျဖစ္သုံးၿပီးေနာက္မွာ object + to/for  

object ပုံစံနဲ႔လည္းသုံးႏူိင္တယ္။
     I sold Jim a car.                           OR      I sold a car to  Jim.
     I bought Mary a book.                  OR     I bought a book for Mary.
     I’m baking Alex a birthday cake.  OR     I’m baking a birthday for Alex

Linking Verbs

အခ်ဳိ႕verb ေတြဟာ ေနာက္မွာ object မသုံးႏူိင္သလုိ တစ္လုံးတည္းနဲ႔လည္း sentence အဓိပၸါယ္ကုို
ျပည့္စုံေအာင္ မေဖာ္ျပႏူိင္ဘူး။ အဓိပၸါယ္ျပည့္စုံဖုိ႔အတြက္ ၎တုိ႔ေနာက္မွာ adjective/noun တစ္လုံး
အၿမဲအတူပါရွိဖုိ႔လုိတယ္။ ဒီလုိ verb ေတြကုိ linking verb လုိ႔ေခၚၿပီး ေနာက္က adjective/noun ကုိ
complement လုိ႔ေခၚတယ္။
            Her voice sounds hoarse. [V-ADJ]
            Elena became a doctor.[V-N]
အခ်ဳိ႕linking verb မ်ားေနာက္မွာ object လုိက္ႏူိင္တယ္။ သို႔ေသာ္ အဲဒီ object ဟာ အဓိပၸါယ္ျပည့္စုံဖို႔
အတြက္ ၎ေနာက္မွာ complement တစ္ခု အၿမဲလုိအပ္တယ္။
              She considered herself lucky.[VN-ADJ]
             They elected him president.[VN-N]
             The evening was deemed a great success.[VN-N]
             She deemed it prudentnot to say anything. [VN-ADJ]

Verbs used with clauses
Verbs + that clause
အခ်ဳိ႕verb ေတြေနာက္မွာ that-clause လုိက္ေလ့ရွိတယ္။ ဒီလုိ verb ေတြထဲက အခ်ဳိ႕မွာ that ခ်န္ထား
လ်က္သုံးႏူိင္ၿပီး၊ အခ်ဳိ႕ကိုေတာ့ that အၿမဲပါဖုိ႔လုိတယ္။
        She answered that she would prefer to walk.[V that]
        George complained that it was too hot.[V that]
        I said (that) I would come.[V (that)]
အခ်ဳိ႕ verb ေတြေနာက္မွာေတာ့ noun phrase + that clause ပုံစံသုံးတယ္။
                    Can you remind me that I need to buy some milk?[VN that]
                    I told her (that) I would be late.[VN (that)]

Verbs + wh-clause

အခ်ဳိ႕verb ေတြေနာက္မွာ which, what, whose, why, where, when, who, whom, how, if,
whether တုိ႔နဲ႔စတဲ့ wh-clause (or phrase) လုိက္ေလ့ရွိတယ္။
            I wonder what the new job would be like.[V wh-clause ]
           He doesn’t care how he looks.[V wh-clause ]
           Did you see which way they went?[V wh-clause]
အခ်ဳိ႕verb ေတြေနာက္မွာေတာ့ noun phrase + wh-clause ပုံစံလုုိက္တယ္။
              I asked him where the library was.[VN wh-clause]
             I told her when the baby was due.[VN wh-clasue]
             He teaches his students how to research a subject thoroughly.[VN wh-phrase]

Verbs + infinitive phrase
eat နဲ႔ to eat ႏွစ္လုံးစလုံးကုိ infinitive လုိ႔ေခၚတယ္။ eat ကုိေတာ့ bare infinitive လုိ႔ေခၚၿပီး to eat ကုိ
to-infinitive လုိ႔ေခၚတယ္။ အခ်ဳိ႕ verb ေတြေနာက္မွာ to-infinitive လုိက္တယ္။

        The gold fish need to be fed.[V to inf ]
         She never learned to read.[V to inf]

အခ်ဳိ႕ verb ေတြေနာက္မွာေတာ့ noun phrase အရင္လာၿပီးမွ to-infinitive လာတယ္။ noun phrase
ဟာ main verb ရဲ႕ object ျဖစ္ႏူိင္တယ္။

     Can you persuade Sheila to chair the meeting?[VN to inf]
    He was forced to hand over the keys.[VN to inf]
    We’d love you to come and visit us.[VN to inf]
see, hear စတဲ့ verb အခ်ဳိ႕မွာေတာ့ ေနာက္မွာ noun phrase + bare infinitive ပုံစံလုိက္တယ္။

    Did you hear the phone ring just then?[VN inf]
     She watched him eat his lunch.[VN inf]

Verbs + ing phrase

အခ်ဳိ႕ verb မ်ားေနာက္မွာ -ing pharse (present participle or gerund) လုိက္တယ္။

        She never stops talking! [V -ing]
        I started looking for a job two years ago.[V -ing]

အခ်ဳိ႕ verb မ်ားေနာက္မွာေတာ့ noun phrase အရင္လာၿပီးမွ -ing လုိက္တယ္။ noun phrase ဟာ
main verb ရဲ႕ object ျဖစ္ႏူိင္တယ္။

       His comments set me thinking.[VN -ing]
       I can smell something nice cooking.[VN -ing]

ဒီ verb မ်ားေနာက္မွာ noun phrase + -ing ႏွစ္ခုေပါင္းဟာ main verb ရဲ႕ object ျဖစ္ႏူိင္တယ္။

        I hate him joking (= the fact that he jokes) about serious things.

ဒီ sentence မွာ him အစား possessive pronoun ျဖစ္တဲ့ his ကုိသုံးႏူိင္တယ္။ possessive pronoun ကုိ
formal writing မွာ formal verb မ်ားနဲ႔တြဲၿပီးအသုံးမ်ားတယ္။
        His religious beliefs precluded him/ his serving in the army.

Verbs + direct speech
say, answer, demand ကဲ့သို႔ေသာ verb မ်ားကုိေတာ့ ေျပာစကားေတြကုိျပန္လည္ေဖာ္ျပဖုိ႔သုံးတယ္။
ေျပာစကားဟာ quotation marks (“ ”) သုံးထားတဲ့ေျပာသူရဲ႕ အတိအက်စကား direct speech ျဖစ္ႏူိင္
သလုိ၊ တစ္ဆင့္ျပန္ေျပာတဲ့ that-clause တစ္ခုလည္းျဖစ္ႏူိင္တယ္။

     “It’s snowing,”she said. [V speech]  She said that it was snowing.[V (that)]

တစ္ခါတစ္ရံမွာ ေျပာသူဘယ္လုိအမႈအယာနဲ႔ေျပာတယ္၊ ေျပာေနစဥ္ဘာလုပ္တယ္ ဆိုတာကုိ ေဖာ္ျပဖုိ႔
အတြက္ laugh, gulp လုိ verb မ်ားကုိလည္း speech verb အျဖစ္သုံးတတ္တယ္။

      “I’d love to come,” she beamed.     “I can’t believe you did that!” he exploded.

အခ်ဳိ႕ verb မ်ားေနာက္မွာေတာ့ direct speech ေရာ noun phrase ပါသုံးႏူိင္တယ္။

              “Tom’s coming to lunch,” she told him.

verb တစ္လုံးဟာ အထက္မွာေဖာ္ျပခဲ့ၿပီးတဲ့ ပုံစံေတြထဲက တစ္မ်ဳိးမက မ်ားစြာနဲ႔သုံးႏုိင္ပါတယ္။
ဥပမာ consider နဲ႔အသုံးမ်ားတဲ့ verb patterns မ်ားကုိေလ့လာၾကည့္ပါ။

I’d like some time to consider.(verb)
She considers her options.(verb + object)
We’re considering buying a new car.(verb + -ing)
We need to consider how the law might be reformed.(verb + wh-clause)
He was considering what to do next.(verb + wh-word + to-infinitive)
This award is considered (to be) a great honour.(verb + noun-phrase complement)
These workers are considered (as) a high-risk group.(verb + noun-phrase)
Who do you consider (to be) responsibe for the accident?(verb + adj-complement)
He’s generally considered to have the finest tenor voice in the country.(verb + to-inf.)
She considers that it is too early to form a definite conclusion.(verb + that-clause)
It is considered that the proposed development would created much-needed jobs.
(it + passive verb + that-clause)

အဂၤလိပ္စာေလ့လာသူမ်ား ကံေကာင္းပါေစ......


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