စာေရးသားရာတြင္လည္း ၀ါက်တစ္ေၾကာင္းမွတစ္ေၾကာင္း စာပိုဒ္တစ္ပိုက္မွ တစ္ပိုဒ္ကူးေျပာင္းရာတြင္ ညက္ေညာ သိမ္ေမြ႕စြာေရးသားႏိုင္မွသာလွ်င္ ဖတ္ေကာင္းေသာ၊ ဖတ္လြယ္ေသာစာတစ္ပုဒ္ျဖစ္ေပမည္။ ေအာက္ပါ နမူနာစာပိုဒ္ ကိုေလ့လာၾကည့္ပါစို႔။

My husband and I are facing a difficult decision. We are debating between sending our children to private school or public school. We like the fact that private schools have uniforms. We like the idea that public schools are more diverse in just about every aspect. We don’t like that private schools can become costly. We do like that the education and discipline there is taken seriously. Public schools are often scared to discipline too harshly. There are pros and cons to both and we must reach a decision.

 

စာေရးသူသည္မိမိ၏စိတ္ကူးစိတ္သန္းကိုတင္ျပရာတြင္ ၀ါက်မ်ားအကူးအေျပာင္းတြင္ ခ်ိတ္ဆက္ထားမႈတစ္ခုမွ ျပဳလုပ္ထားျခင္းမရွိေခ်။ အဆိုပါစာပိုဒ္ကိုပဲ မ်ဥ္းသားထားသည့္ စကားလံုးတစ္ခ်ိဳ႕ႏွင့္ ခ်ိတ္ဆက္လိုက္ေသာအခါ ပို၍ေျပျပစ္ေသာအေရးအသားျဖစ္လာသည္ ကိုေတြ႕ႏိုင္ပါသည္။

My husband and I are facing a difficult decision. Currently, we are debating between sending our children to private school or public school. We like the fact that private schools have uniforms. However, we like the idea that public schools are more diverse in just about every aspect. Meanwhile, we don’t like that private schools can become costly; although, we do like that the education and discipline there is taken seriously. Public schools are often scared to discipline too harshly. All in all, there are pros and cons to both and we must reach a decision.

 

currently = ေလာေလာဆယ္

however = သို႔ေသာ္လည္း

meanwhile = ထိုအခိုက္၊ အခ်ိန္အေတာအတြင္း

although = ေသာ္လည္း၊ ေပမည့္

all in all = အခ်ဳပ္အားျဖင့္ဆိုရေသာ္၊ အားလံုးၿခံဳေျပာရလွ်င္ စသည့္ စကားလံုးမ်ားကို transitions ဟုေခၚပါသည္။

စာေရးသားရာတြင္ sign posting ဟုေခၚသည့္ လမ္းညႊန္မ်ားထည့္သြင္း အသံုးျပဳျခင္းသည္ စာဖတ္သူ၏လမ္းခရီးတစ္ေလ်ာက္ ဘာကိုေတြ႕လွ်င္ ဘာကိုေမွ်ာ္လင့္ထား ရမည္၊ မည္သို႔ျပဳျပင္ထားရမည္ဟူသည္ကို အေထာက္အကူေပးသျဖင့္ စာပိုဒ္အားအဆင္ေျပ ေခ်ာေမြ႕စြာ ဖတ္႐ႈႏိုင္မည္ျဖစ္သည္။ ၄င္း sign posting စနစ္မွာ transitions ႏွင့္ linking words မ်ားသူ႔ေနရာ ႏွင့္သူအသံုးျပဳျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။ ေအာက္တြင္ ၄င္းတို႔အားသံုးစြဲပံုကို ဥပမာႏွင့္ေဖာ္ျပထားပါသည္။

 

Linking words မ်ားအား transition words သို႔မဟုတ္ adverbial conjunctions, ဟုလည္းေခၚၾကသည္။ ၀ါက်အစတြင္ထားႏိုင္သည္။

 

(Then) မွလြဲ၍ က်န္သည့္ linking words အမ်ားေနာက္တြင္ ေကာ္မာထည့္ရပါသည္။

 

  • She doesn't type very fast. In addition, she can't spell.
    သူစာ႐ုိက္တာမျပန္ဘူး။ ဒါ့အျပင္ စာလံုးေပါင္းလည္းမေကာင္းဘူး။
  • She works fast. Consequently, she finishes early.
    သူအလုပ္လုပ္တာျမန္တယ္။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ အေစာႀကီးၿပီးတယ္။

 

ေအာက္ပါပံုစံအတိုင္း semi-colon ႏွင့္လည္းသံုးႏိုင္သည္။                 

 

  • She doesn't type very fast; in addition, she can't spell.
    သူစာ႐ုိက္တာမျပန္ဘူး။ ဒါ့အျပင္ စာလံုးေပါင္းလည္းမေကာင္းဘူး။
  • She works fast; consequently, she finishes early.
    သူအလုပ္လုပ္တာျမန္တယ္။ ဒါေၾကာင့္ အေစာႀကီးၿပီးတယ္။

 

မွတ္ရန္: a period or semi-colon သည္  linker ၏ေရွ႕တြင္ေနၿပီး --a comma သည္ linker  ၏ေနာက္တြင္ေနသည္။

 

Talking about the present time လတ္တေလာအေျခအေနကိုေျပာျခင္း

  1. These days, computers are available in most public schools and libraries.
    ယေန႔ေခတ္တြင္ အစိုးရေက်ာင္းမ်ားႏွင့္စာၾကည့္တိုက္မ်ားတြင္ ကြန္ပ်ဴတာမ်ား အသံုးျပဳႏိုင ၿပီျဖစ္သည္။
  2. Nowadays, women get heart attacks almost as often as men do.
    ယေန႔ေခတ္တြင္ မိန္းမမ်ားသည္လည္း ေယာက်္ားမ်ားနည္းတႏွလံုးေရာဂါရၾကသည္။
  3. In this day and age, technology is present in every facet of our life.
    ဒီေခတ္ႀကီးထဲတြင္ နည္းပညာသည္ ကၽြႏု္ပ္တို႔ဘ၀၏မ်က္ႏွာစာတိုင္းတြင္ ပါ၀င္လ်က္ရွိသည္။
  4. Currently, the economy is strong.
    လတ္တေလာတြင္ စီးပြားေရးေကာင္းမြန္ေနသည္။
  5. At the present time, the President is facing political difficulties.
    ေလာေလာဆယ္တြင္ေတာ့ သမၼတ ဟာႏိုင္ငံေရးအၾကပ္အတည္းမ်ားႏွင့္ရင္ဆိုင္ေနရသည္။


Talking about the historic past အတိတ္ကာလအေၾကာင္းေျပာျခင္း

 

  1. A long time ago, there were no computers in schools.
    ဟိုးအရင္တုန္းကေတာ့ ေက်ာင္းေတြမွာကြန္ပ်ဴတာေတြမရွိၾကဘူး။
  2. In former times, people went to the river to get drinking water.
    အရင္ေခတ္တုန္းက လူေတြဟာေသာက္သံုးေရရဖို႔ ျမစ္ေတြကိုအသံုးျပဳၾကတယ္။
  3. Formerly, slaves did much of the work in this country.
    အစဦးက ေက်းကၽြန္ေတြဟာဒီတိုင္းျပည္အတြက္အလုပ္အေကၽြးမ်ားစြာ ျပဳခဲ့ၾကတယ္။
  4. In the old days, kings and princes ruled people's lives.
    ေခတ္ေဟာင္းတုန္းက ဘုရင္နဲ႔မင္းသမီးေတြဟာ လူေတြရဲ႕ဘ၀ကိုအုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ခဲ့ၾကတယ္။

 

Giving additional examples and reasons ထို႔အျပင္ ႏွင့္ ဥပမာႏွင့္ဆင္ေျခေပးျခင္း

  1. He's too weak to do heavy labor. In addition, his memory is failing him.
    သူဟာအလုပ္ၾကမ္းလုပ္ဖို႔အလြန္အားနည္းတယ္။ ထို႔အျပင္ မွတ္ဥာဏ္ကလည္း ခ်ိဳ႕ယြင္း ေနေသး။
  2. I think he's a boring teacher. What's more, he doesn't know his subject.
    ကၽြန္ေတာ့္အထင္ေတာ့ သူဟာပ်င္းစရာဆရာတစ္ေယာက္ပါ။ ဒါထက္ပိုတာက သူ႔ဘာသာ ရပ္ကို သူမသိဘူးဗ်။
  3. I don't have time to read Shakespeare. Besides, I don't understand him.
    ကၽြန္ေတာ့္မွာ ရွိတ္စပီးယားဖတ္ဖို႔အခ်ိန္မရွိဘူး။ ျပီးေတာ့ သူေရးတာနားမလည္ဘူးေလ။
  4. She's always late for work. (ဒါ့အျပင္) Besides this, she loses important files.
    သူမဟာအၿမဲတမ္းအလုပ္ေနာက္က်ေနတာပဲ။ေနာက္ၿပီးေတာ့အေရးႀကီးတဲ့ဖိုင္ေတြေပ်ာက္လို ေပ်ာက္နဲ႔။
  5. The school doesn't have money for books. (ဒါထက္) Furthermore, the building is old.
    ေက်ာင္းမွာစာအုပ္အတြက္ရံပံုေငြမရွိပါ။ ဒါထက္္ အေဆာက္အအံုကလည္းအိုမင္းေနၿပီ။
  6. I am too busy to help you. (သည့္အျပင္)Moreover, I think you can do it by yourself.
    မင္းကိုငါမကူအားဘူးအလုပ္အရမ္းမ်ားေနတယ္။ ေနာက္ၿပီးေတာ့ မင္းဘာသာလုပ္ႏိုင္တယ္ လို႔လဲထင္တယ္။
  7. She's smart and beautiful. On top of that, she's kind and considerate.
    သူမဟာလွပတယ္။ထက္ျမက္တယ္။ ဒါထက္ပိုတာက ၾကင္နာၿပီးစာနာေပးတတ္တယ္။

Giving the truth အခ်က္အလက္အမွန္ကိုေျပာၾကားျခင္း

  1. I don't like little Ricky. To tell the truth, I think he's a monster.
    ရစ္ကီေလးကိုေတာ့မႀကိဳက္ဘူးဗ်ာ။ အမွန္ကိုေျပာရရင္ေတာ့ သူ႔ကိုလူဆိုးေလးလို႔ျမင္တယ္။
  2. He says he's a vegetarian. In fact, he eats seafood on occasion.
    သူေျပာေတာ့ သက္သတ္လြတ္သမားတဲ့။ တကယ္ေတာ့ ပင္လယ္စာလည္း ရံဖန္ရံခါစားတာ ပါပဲ။
  3. He calls himself a "professor." Actually, he's only a teaching assistant!
    သူ႔ကိုယ္သူေတာ့ “ပါေမာကၡ”တဲ့။ တကယ္ေတာ့ သူဟာ သာမန္လက္ေထာက္ေလးပါပဲ။

ဇာနည္(MyWay!)


 

 

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- ယခုလ (May 2013) မွစ၍ အသင္းဝင္မ်ားကို လစဥ္ ၁၀၀၀၀ တန္ ဖုန္းေငြျဖည့္ကဒ္ ၁၀ ကဒ္ကို ကံစမ္းမဲေဖာက္ေပးမည္ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။
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its a hard decision to make. Private schools (for middle class in Yangon) offers very little advantage. Manys private schools teachers do not have any qualification. I mean both local and expats. Some may say they have teaching certificate but it only takes (CELTA?) 2 months to get a certificate.Please look at the data and do some research...ask this question when you are shopping private school for your kid: 

1. who develop lesson plan 2. what is the director qualification 3. any independent evaluation done in the pass 12 months about the relenvancy of your teaching methods and materials( this does not mean ISO. ISO is only for industrial). Generally, make sure sure ...whoever leading a school is a pure educator not Business people. 

Here's an example: the number and percentage of student who gradurated from International school V. the percentage of student who gradurate from government school (pick one good school like Dagon 1). Once you compare it, you will know ...Dagon 1 produce the most. 

Please dont take my advice but save your money for your kid college. Dont let our children socially distance with their own culture and lost track of reality. Even Yangon International School gradurate tend not to get into good school in the U.S. Thats the fact... 

thanks you

Thanks

Thanks.

Thanks so much to Mr/Ms Zar Ni for Transitions and Linking Words which are especially require for my current Job.
Tanks a lot!
thank u

wow!...thanks

ႊThanks Saya !

Thankyou sayar.
I would like to study about phonetic pronunciation with spelling.where to study .somebody help me.

Thanks

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