Writing Skills ႏွင့္ စပ္လ်ဥ္း၍ "Using correct paragraph structure" ျဖင့္ ေရးသားနည္းကို ေလ့လာ၍ paragraph writing ေရးၾကရေအာင္။
Paragraph ကို အဓိပၸါယ္ဖြင့္ဆိုထားပံုမွာ "A paragraph is a group of sentences about one main idea." ဟူ၍ ျဖစ္ပါသည္။

Paragraph တစ္ခုတြင္ ပါဝင္ေသာ 3 types of sentences မွာ

  • A topic sentence
    This sentence tells the main idea of the whole paragraph.
  • Supporting sentences
    These sentences explain the main idea. They often give examples and details.
  • A concluding sentence
    This sentence ends the paragraph. Sometimes, it tells the reader the main idea again. Some paragraphs, especially short ones, do not have a concluding sentence.


Activity A တြင္ ပါရွိေသာ instruction အတိုင္း Topic sentence ကို မ်ဥ္းသား၍ "TS" ဟု ေရးမွတ္ကာ Supporting sentences ၃ခု ကိုလည္း sentence ၃ေၾကာင္း ျပည့္ေအာင္ မ်ဥ္းသား၍ SS ဟု ေရးမွတ္ပါ။ Concluding sentence ကိုလည္း မ်ဥ္းသား၍ CS ဟု ေရးမွတ္ပါ။

A. Read the paragraph. Underline the topic sentence, the three supporting sentences, and the concluding sentence. Then write TS (topic sentence), SS (supporting sentence), or CS (concluding sentence) above each sentence.

Vacations are not the right answer to worker stress. First of all, one or two vacations a year cannot reduce the stress of many days of long work hours. Also, vacations can actually be very stressful because they are expensive and difficult. Finally, people lived for thousands of years without vacations. Vacations are not necessary.

ေျဖဆိုျပီးပါက Answer Key ကိုက္ၾကည့္ပါ။

Activity A Answers:

TS: Vacations are not the right answer to worker stress.
SS: First of all, one or two vacations a year cannot reduce the stress of many days of long work hours. Also, vacations can actually be very stressful because they are expensive and difficult. Finally, people lived for thousands of years without vacations.
CS: Vacations are not necessary.

Sentences မ်ား၏ ေရးသားခ်က္မ်ားကို အေသးစိပ္ေလ့လာသင့္ေသာ အခ်က္မ်ား

  • Topic sentence ျဖစ္သည့္ "Vacations are not the right answer to work stress" ကို ဖတ္႐ႈျခင္းျဖင့္ vacation ကို negative sense မေကာင္းျမင္သေဘာျဖင့္ စတင္ထားပါသည္။ Supporting sentences သုံးခုလုံးကိုလည္း negative sense ျဖင့္ပင္ ေထာက္ပင့္ေရးသားထားပါသည္။
  • Concluding sentence ျဖစ္ေသာ "Vacations are not necessary" ဟု negative sense ျဖင့္ပင္ နိဂုံးခ်ဳပ္ထားပါသျဖင့္ ဤ paragraph ၏ အစ၊ အလယ္၊ အဆုံး သုံးမ်ိဳးလုံးမွာ relevancy ဆီေလ်ာ္မႈရွိသည္ဟု သုံးသပ္ရပါမည္။

Activity B ၏ ဝါက်မ်ားကို Topic sentence, Supporting sentence ႏွင့္ Concluding sentence တို႕၏ သေဘာသဘာဝ အေလ်ာက္စဥ္းစား၍ ဝါက်မ်ားကို correct order စီၾကည့္ၾကရေအာင္။

B. Read the sentences about the Chinese vacation policy for Golden Week. Put them into the order of a paragraph. Number them 1-5.


___ Finally, with the Golden Week policy, a worker is sure to have a vacation with pay every year.
___ First of all, many Chinese people work far away from their hometowns, and Golden Week gives them enough time to travel back home.
___ For these three reasons, the Golden Week policy is a good idea.
___ Many people in China like the Golden Week vacation policy because it improves workers' lives in the following ways.
___ Also, the Golden Week policy makes it easy to plan a big family party because everyone has a vacation at the same time.


Sentences မ်ားကို correct order စီျပီးပါက အေျဖတိုက္ၾကည့္ၾကရေအာင္။

Exercise B Answers:

Order of sentences 4,2,5,1,and 3.

Activity C ၏ instruction အရ ဝါက် ငါးခုကို correct order အရ 1,2,3,4,5 အစီအစဥ္အရေရးပါက "Chinese vacation policy for Golden Week" ေခါင္းစဥ္ျဖင့္ paragraph တစ္ခုျဖစ္လာပါမည္။

Activity C

C. Write the sentences in Activity B in the form of a paragraph in your notebook. Remember to indent the first line.

ရွင္းလင္းခ်က္

Sentence 1
"Many people in China like the Golden Week vacation policy ...." သည္ Topic sentence ျဖစ္ပါသည္။

Supporting sentences မ်ားမွာ

  • "First of all ..."
    တရုတ္လူမ်ိဳးတို႕၏ Golden Week policy ကို ႏွစ္သက္ရျခင္း ပထမအခ်က္ကို တင္ျပ၍
  • "Also the Golden Week policy makes ...."
    Golden Week policy ၏ ဒုတိယေကာင္းေသာ အခ်က္ကို တင္ျပကာ
  • "Finally, with the Golden Week policy ...."
    Supporting sentences ၏ ေကာင္းခ်က္စသည္မ်ားကို အစီအစဥ္က်နစြာ အက်ိဳးအေၾကာင္းဆီေလ်ာ္ေအာင္ ေျပာဆိုေရးသားထားပါသည္။
  • ေနာက္ဆုံးတြင္ Concluding sentence ကို "For these three reasons, ....." Supporting sentences မ်ားတြင္ ေဖာ္ျပထားသည့္ အခ်က္သုံးခ်က္ေၾကာင့္ ဟူ၍ ဝါက်မ်ားကို ခ်ိတ္ဆက္မိေအာင္ ေျပာဆိုေသာကာ Golden Week Vacation ၏ ေကာင္းမြန္ပံုမ်ားကို နိဂုံးခ်ဳပ္သြားပါသည္။


Activity C "Chinese vacation policy for Golden Week" ကို မွီျငမ္း၍ ျမန္မာမႈျပဳကာ Activity D ကို "Myanmar Vacation Policy for Thingyan Festival" ေခါင္းစဥ္ျဖင့္ paragraph တစ္ခုေရးၾကည့္ၾကရေအာင္။
Topic Sentence ကို "China" အစား "Myanmar", "Golden Week vacation policy" အစား "Thingyan Festival vacation policy" ဟု substitute လုပ္၍ ေရးသားႏိုင္ပါသည္။ Supporting sentence ဒုတိယအခ်က္ ျဖစ္သည့္ ".... to plan a big family party ...." အစား ျမန္မာ့ culture ယဥ္ေက်းမႈ၊ tradition ဓေလ့ထုံးစံႏွင့္ ေလ်ာ္ညီေအာင္ ".... to plan family donations ...." ျဖင့္ ေျပာင္းလဲေရးသားႏိုင္ပါသည္။

Supporting sentences မ်ားကို သုံးခ်က္တည္း သာမက Thingyan festival and improving workers' lives မ်ားႏွင့္ စပ္လ်ဥ္းသည့္ positive point of views မွ facts အခ်က္အလက္မ်ားကို စဥ္းစားကာ "Also" ကို အသုံးျပဳေရးသားသကဲ့သို႕ extended facts မ်ားကို "Moreover", "Furthermore", "In addition" စသည္ျဖင့္ Supporting sentences မ်ားကို ခ်ဲ႕ထြင္ေရးသားႏိုင္ပါသည္။ Concluding sentence တြင္ "For these three reasons" အစား supporting sentences မ်ားကို ပိုမိုေရးသားထားပါက "three" ျဖဳတ္၍ "For these reasons" အစခ်ီလ်က္ "Having a ten day vacation in Myanmar Thingyan Festival" ကို အစားထိုးနိဂုံးခ်ဳပ္ေရးသားႏိုင္ပါသည္။

Correct paragraph structure ကို အသုံးျပဳ၍ စာေပအေရးအသား ပိုင္ႏိုင္သူမ်ား ျဖစ္ၾကပါေစ။

Reference: Q: Skills for Success Reading and Writing By Sarah Lyman (Page 94, 95)

Daw Tin Nwai Win

Retired Lecturer (English Department, Yangon University) Diploma in Teaching of English Overseas (Leeds University), M.A (T.E.F.L) Y.I.O.E

Views: 2229

Reply to This

Replies to This Discussion

Thank you

Thanks

Thank you. Very Useful.

Thanks a lot.
Very very good,Thank teacher.:-)

RSS

Featured Discussions

© 2017   Created by Myanmar Network.   Powered by

Badges  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service