Previous writing lesson တင္ျပစဥ္က paragraph တစ္ခုတြင္ Topic sentence, Supporting sentences ႏွင့္ Concluding sentence ရွိေၾကာင္းကို ေလ့လာျပီးျဖစ္ပါသည္။
ယခု lesson တြင္ Supporting sentences မ်ားတြင္ ထပ္ဆင့္ရွင္းလင္းသည္ detail အေသးစိပ္ေဖာ္ျပခ်က္မ်ားရွိေၾကာင္း Sarah Lynn ၏ Q: Skills for Success စာအုပ္မွ တိုက္႐ိုက္ေကာက္ႏွုတ္ခ်က္ျဖင့္ ေဖာ္ျပလိုက္ပါသည္။
Writing Skills : Writing supporting sentences and details
Supporting sentences explain the topic sentence in more detail. When you write an academic paper (for school), it is important to include two or three supporting sentences. It is also important to include details. Details give more information about each supporting sentence. Details include examples, reasons, facts, dates, and numbers. The underlined sentences in the example are supporting sentences. The check marks (√) are at the beginning of each detail. It is often good to write a list of every detail you can think of and then choose only the best ones.
Popular songs work well in television and radio advertisements. Popular music is familiar and fun. √ It makes the product seem familiar and fun. People often sing along with popular songs. √ People remember the advertisement because they sing along with the music. Popular songs make advertisements more familiar, memorable and fun.
ဤ paragraph ကို ေလ့လာျခင္းအားျဖင့္ "Popular songs work well in television and radio advertisements." သည္ Topic sentence ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ Underline မ်ဥ္းသားထားေသာ "Popular music is familiar and fun." သည္ first supporting sentence ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ထို first supporting sentence ကို tick (√) ျဖင့္ "It makes the product seem familiar and fun" ဟူသည့္ ဝါက်ျဖင့္ detail ေဖာ္ျပထားပါသည္။
Second supporting sentence မွာ underline လုပ္ထားသည့္ "People often sing along with popular songs." ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ထို second supporting sentence ကို detail ေဖာ္ျပထားေသာ sentence မွာ tick (√) လုပ္ထားသည့္ "People remember the advertisement because they sing along with the music." ဟူေသာ ဝါက်ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ "People sing along with the music" ေၾကာင့္ "People remember the advertisement" ဟု detail တြင္ reason အေၾကာင္းအက်ိဳးေဖာ္ျပထားပါသည္။
ထို Supporting sentences မ်ားႏွင့္ details မ်ားေၾကာင့္ "Popular songs make advertisements more familiar, memorable and fun." ဟူ၍ Concluding sentence ျဖင့္ နိဂုံးခ်ဳပ္ထားပါသည္။
အထက္ေဖာ္ျပပါ paragraph ကို sample ယူ၍ Activity A တြင္ supporting sentences သံုးခုကို underline လုပ္ျပီး details ဝါက်သုံးခု၏ ေရွ႕တြင္ (tick) √ လုပ္ၾကည့္ၾကရေအာင္။
A. Read the paragraph and underline the three supporting sentences. Then put a check (√) at the beginning of each detail.
I like to listen to music in different places. I like to listen to classical music at work. It makes me feel intelligent and serious. I like to listen to fast and loud music in the car. It makes me feel energetic and happy. I like to listen to string music in bed. It makes me feel quiet and relaxed. I like to hear music in many different places.
Activity လုပ္ျပီးပါက Answer Key ကိုက္ၾကည့္ပါ။
Activity A Answers
I like to listen to classical music at work.
I like to listen to fast and loud music in the car.
I like to listen to string music in bed.
It makes me feel intelligent and serious.
It makes me feel energetic and happy.
It makes me feel quiet and relaxed.
Sample paragraph ကို ေလ့လာ၍ Activity A ကို ပိုင္းျခားခြဲစိပ္ေလ့က်င့္ခန္းျပဳလုပ္ျခင္းျဖင့္ Supporting sentence ကို detail sentence က ေနာက္မွလိုက္၍ အေသးစိပ္ျဖည့္စြက္ရွင္းလင္းေပးေၾကာင္း သိရွိရပါသည္။
Activity B ၏ No. 1 ႏွင့္ No. 2 တို႕တြင္ Topic sentence ႏွစ္ေၾကာင္းကို ေတြ႕ရပါမည္။ ထို Topic sentence တစ္ခုစီ၏ ေအာက္တြင္ Supporting sentences ႏွစ္ခုစီကို ေတြ႕ရွိႏိုင္ပါသည္။ ထိုကြက္လပ္စာေၾကာင္းမ်ား၌ Box တြင္ ေပးထားေသာ Supporting sentences (a to d) မွ သင့္ေလ်ာ္ရာကို ေရြး၍ စာႏွစ္ေၾကာင္းစီေရးသားပါ။
B. Read each topic sentence. Then choose the best supporting sentence from the box below for the topic sentence. Do not write details yet.
1. Music changes the way people feel.
2. Music is natural for people.
a. Music with a quick tempo makes people feel happy.
b. Babies like the sound of music.
c. People all over the world have music.
d. Slow music makes people feel sad.
ေပးထားေသာ Supporting sentences မ်ားကို No.1 and No.2 တို႕တြင္ ျဖည့္စြက္ၾကည့္ျပီးပါက Answer Key ကိုက္ၾကည့္ပါ။
Activity B Answer Key
1. a,d; 2. b,c
Activity C ကို ဆက္လုပ္ပါ။ Box တြင္ ေပးသားေသာ details (a to d) မွ သင့္ေလ်ာ္ရာစာေၾကာင္းမ်ားကို ေရြး၍ Activity B ရွိ Supporting sentences မ်ား ေအာက္တြင္ ဆီေလ်ာ္ေအာင္ ထည့္သြင္းေျဖဆိုပါ။
C. Choose the best detail from the box for each supporting sentence in Activity B. Write the details on the lines in Activity B.
a. Mothers all over the world sing to their babies.
b. Songs in movies are not usually fast when someone dies.
c. It’s fun to listen to dance music when shopping for clothes.
d. Many countries have their own string instrument.
ေျဖဆိုျပီးပါက Answer Key ကိုက္ၾကည့္ပါ။
Activity C Answer Key
1. c,b; 2. a,d
Activity B တြင္ အေျဖမွန္ sentences မ်ားကို အစီအစဥ္က်နစြာ ျပန္ေရးခ်ပါက Music ႏွင့္ ပက္သက္၍ စနစ္တက်ေရးသားထားေသာ paragraph ႏွစ္ခုကို ရရွိႏိုင္ပါသည္။
ဤ activities အားလုံးကို ျပဳလုပ္ျပီးေနာက္ Last activity အေနျဖင့္ "Write a paragraph about how music makes you feel" ကို ကိုယ္ပိုင္အေတြ႕အၾကဳံကို အေျခခံ၍ ဂီတ၏ ရသခံစားမႈကို စာဖြဲ႕ေရးသားၾကည့္ပါ။
Writing ကို ၾကိမ္ဖန္မ်ားစြာ ေလ့က်င့္ေရးသားႏိုင္ၾကပါေစ။
Reference: Q: Skills for Success Reading and Writing by Sarah Lynn (page 135, 136)
Daw Tin Nwai Win
Retired Lecturer (English Department, Yangon University) Diploma in Teaching of English Overseas (Leeds University), M.A (T.E.F.L) Y.I.O.E